Symbols

BASIC MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS


NAMESYMBOLNAMESYMBOL
Multiplication×Division÷
Degree°Percent
(per hundred)
%
Permille
(per thousand)
Therefore
Left bracket or parenthesis(Right bracket or parenthesis)
Left square bracket[Right square bracket

 

]
Left curly bracket or brace{Right curly bracket or brace}
MinuteSecond
Equal to=Approximately equal to
Not equal to
Less than<Greater than>
Less than or equal toGreater than or equal to
Identical toAlmost equal to
AngleSquare root


CURRENCY SYMBOLS


NAMESYMBOLNAMESYMBOL
Pound Sterling£Dollar$
Cent¢Euro
FlorinƒYen¥
FrancLira
PesetaChinese Yuan
RupeeSheqel

GREEK ALPHABET


NAMEUPPER
CASE
LOWER
CASE
NAMEUPPER
CASE
LOWER
CASE
AlphaΑαBeta

 

Ββ
GammaΓγDeltaΔδ
EpsilonΕεZetaΖζ
EtaΗηThetaΘθ
IotaΙιKappaΚκ
LambdaΛλMuΜμ
NuΝνXiΞξ
OmicronΟοPiΠπ
RhoΡρSigmaΣσ
TauΤτUpsilonΥυ
PhiΦφChiΧχ
PsiΨψOmegaΩω

pdfDownload Greek alphabet in PDF format

IMPERIAL UNITS

 

NAME METRIC EQUIVALENT
Length
Thou1/1000 inch0.0254 mm
Inch1/12 foot2.54 cm
Foot12 inches30.48 cm
Yard3 feet / 36 inches91.44 cm
Chain22 yards20.12 m
Furlong10 chains201.17 m
Mile8 furlongs1609.3 m
League3 miles4828.03 m
Volume
Fluid ounce1/20 pint28.41 ml
Gill1/4 pint142.07 ml
Pint20 fluid ounces568.26 ml
Quart2 pints1136.5 ml
Gallon8 pints4546 ml
Mass
Ounce1/16 pound28.35 g
Pound16 ounces453.6 g
Stone14 pounds6350.3 g
Hundredweight112 pounds50.8 Kg

pdfDownload Imperial Units in PDF format

SI PREFIXEs

 

ORDER OF MAGNITUDENAMESYMBOL
1024YottaY
1021ZettaZ
1018ExaE
1015PetaP
1012TeraT
109GigaG
106MegaM
103Kilok
102Hectoh
101DekaDa
10-1Decid
10-2Centic
10-3Millim
10-6Microμ
10-9Nanon
10-12Picop
10-15FemtoF
10-18Attoa
10-21Zeptoz
10-24Yoctoy

pdfDownload SI Prefixes in PDF format

ROMAN NUMERALS

 

The Romans used letters to represent numbers. The table below gives the Roman numerals up to 100. The second table shows some examples and how larger numbers up to 1,000,000 were represented. They also had a means of representing fractions. The Romans used base 10 for ordinary numbers, but used a duodecimal, base 12 system for fractions.

 12345678910
1 - 10IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIIIIXX
11 - 20XIXIIXIIIXIVXVXVIXVIIXVIIIXIXXX
21 - 30XXIXXIIXXIIIXXIVXXVXXVIXXVIIXXVIIIXXIXXXX
31 - 40XXXIXXXIIXXXIIIXXXIVXXXVXXXVIXXXVIIXXXVIIIXXXIXXL
41 - 50XLIXLIIXLIIIXLIVXLVXLVIXLVIIXLVIIIXLIXL
51 - 60LILIILIIILIVLVLVILVIILVIIILIXLX
61 - 70LXILXIILXIIILXIVLXVLXVILXVIILXVIIILXIXLXX
71 - 80LXXILXXIILXXIIILXXIVLXXVLXXVILXXVIILXXVIIILXXIXLXXX
81 - 90LXXXILXXXIILXXXIIILXXXIVLXXXVLXXXVILXXXVIILXXXVIIILXXXIXXC
91 - 100XCIXCIIXCIIIXCIVXCVXCVIXCVIIXCVIIIXCIXC
D = 500
M = 1000

 

EXAMPLES

121 = CXXI417 = CDXVII981 = CMLXXXI
1234 = MCCXXXIV1550 = MDL1890 = MDCCCXC


For larger numbers, the Romans added a bar over the letters which meant 'multiplied by 1000'. So 5,000 would have been written as V̅.


CharacterValue
5,000
10,000
50,000
100,000
500,000
1,000,000

FRACTIONS

The Romans also had a means of representing fractions. The Romans used base 10 for ordinary numbers, but used a duodecimal, base 12 system for fractions. In the Roman base 10 system it would have been difficult to represent 1/3 or 1/4 whereas this could be easily achieved using a base 12, duodecimal system.

FractionRepresentation
1/12
2/12 or 1/6●●
3/12 or 1/4●●●
4/12 or 1/3●●●●
5/12●●●●●
6/12 or 1/2S
7/12S●
8/12 or 2/3S●●
9/12 or 3/4S●●●
10/12 or 5/6S●●●●
11/12S●●●●●
12/12 or 1I